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Har Wai Li
kampar, ipoh, Malaysia
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Monday, 3 October 2011

have got or has got

Affirmative sentences

long form contracted form
I have got a brother. I've got a brother.
You have got a sister. You've got a sister.
He has got a budgie. He's got a budgie.
She has got a dog. She's got a dog.
It has got Bluetooth. It's got Bluetooth.
We have got CDs. We've got CDs.
You have got a nice room. You've got a nice room.
They have got pets. They've got pets.

Negations

long form contracted form
I have not got a brother. I haven't got a brother. oder
I've not got a brother.
You have not got a sister. You haven't got a sister. oder
You've not got a sister.
He has not got a budgie. He hasn't got a budgie. oder
He's not got a budgie.
She has not got a dog. She hasn't got a dog. oder
She's not got a dog.
It has not got Bluetooth. It hasn't got Bluetooth. oder
It's not got Bluetooth.
We have not got CDs. We haven't got CDs. oder
We've not got CDs.
You have not got a nice room. You haven't got a nice room. oder
You've not got a nice room.
They have not got pets. They haven't got pets. oder
They've not got pets.
Spelling:
There is not >e< hasn't.
correct: She hasn't got a ruler.
incorrect: She hasen't got a ruler.

Questions

question short answer
Have I got time? Yes, I have.
No, I haven't.
Have you got lots of friends? Yes, I have.
No, I haven't.
Has he got a mobile phone? Yes, he has.
No, he hasn't.
Has she got a pink car? Yes, she has.
No, she hasn't.
Has it got mudguards? Yes, it has.
No, it hasn't.
Have we got milk? Yes, we have.
No, we haven't.
Have you got a brown bag? Yes, we have.
No, we haven't.
Have they got nice books? Yes, they have.
No, they haven't.
Do not use >got< in the short answer.
Have they got lots of friends?
correct: Yes, they have.
incorrect: Yes, they have got.

have or have got

Affirmative sentences

>have< >have got<
I have a brother. I have got a brother.
I've got a brother.
You have a sister. You have got a sister.
You've got a sister.
He has a cat. He has got a cat.
He's got a cat.
She has a dog. She has got a dog.
She's got a dog.
It has Bluetooth. It has got Bluetooth.
It's got Bluetooth.
We have books. We have got books.
We've got books.
You have a nice room. You have got a nice room.
You've got a nice room.
They have pets. They have got pets.
They've got pets.
have got is often used in its contracted form even in written language.

Negative sentences

>have< >have got<
I do not have a brother.
I don't have a brother.
I have not got a brother. or
I haven't got a brother. or
I've not got a brother.
You do not have a sister.
You don't have a sister.
You have not got a sister. or
You haven't got a sister. or
You've not got a sister.
He does not have a cat.
He doesn't have a cat.
He has not got a cat. or
He hasn't got a cat. or
He's not got a cat.
She does not have a dog.
She doesn't have a dog.
She has not got a dog. or
She hasn't got a dog. or
She's not got a dog.
It does not have Bluetooth.
It doesn't have Bluetooth.
It has not got Bluetooth. or
It hasn't got Bluetooth. or
It's not got Bluetooth.
We do not have books.
We don't have books.
We have not got books. or
We haven't got books. or
We've not got books.
You do not have a nice room.
You don't have a nice room.
You have not got a nice room. or
You haven't got a nice room. or
You've not got a nice room.
They do not have pets.
They don't have pets.
They have not got pets. or
They haven't got pets. or
They've not got pets.

Questions

>have< >have got<
Do I have time? Have I got time?
Do you have pets? Have you got pets?
Does he have a computer? Has he got a computer?
Does she have a mobile phone? Has she got a mobile phone?
Does it have mudguards? Has it got mudguards?
Do we have ketchup? Have we got ketchup?
Do you have a yellow car? Have you got a yellow car?
Do they have nice teachers? Have they got nice teachers?
Negations in questions:
Don't you have a brother? Haven't you got a brother?


Be careful!

1) The contracted forms 've or 's are only used with have got - not with have.
correct incorrect
I've got a new mobile phone.
I've a new mobile phone.
He's got a new car. He's a new car.
2) Do not use an auxiliary with have got - only with have. Be careful when using negations.
correct incorrect
Have you got garden?
Do you have got a garden?
Do you have a pet? Have you a pet?
They haven't got a house. They haven't a house.
3) >have< cannot always be substituted with >have got<. You can only substitute >have< with >have got< when you talk about possession and relationships.
have got have
I've got a brother. I have a brother.
incorrect: I had got an accident.
I had an accident.
incorrect: We had got lunch. We had lunch.


Note:
In American English >have< is dropped in informal speech like in the following example.
We've got a problem. -> We got a problem

have to, had to

have to in affirmative sentences (Simple Present)

Example:

I/we/you/they have to get up early.
He/she/it has to get up early.

have to in negative sentences (Simple Present)

Example:
I/we/you/they do not have to get up early.
He/she/it does not have to get up early.
contracted forms:
I/we/you/they don't have to get up early.
He/she/it doesn't have to get up early.

have to in questions (Simple Present)

Example:

Do I/we/you/they have to get up early?
Does he/she/it have to get up early

had to in affirmative sentences (Simple Past)

Example:

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had to get up early.

had to in negative sentences (Simple Past)

Example:

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they did not have to get up early
contracted forms:
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they didn't have to get up early.

had to in questions (Simple Past)

Example:

Did I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they have to get up early?

Long forms, contracted forms (short forms)


affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I am I'm I am not I'm not
he, she, it:
he is he's he is not he isn't oder he's not
we, you, they:
we are we're we are not we aren't oder we're not
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I, he, she, it:
he was - he was not he wasn't
we, you, they:
we were - we were not we weren't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I, we, you, they:
we have got we've got we have not got we've not got oder we haven't got
he, she, it:
he has got he's got he has not got he's not got oder he hasn't got
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
I had I'd I had not I hadn't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I, we, you, they:
I do - I do not I don't
he, she, it:
he does - he does not he doesn't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
I did - I did not I didn't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
can - cannot can't
could - could not couldn't
must - must not mustn't
might - might not --
need - need not needn't
will 'll will not won't
would 'd would not wouldn't
shall - shall not shan't
should 'd should not shouldn't
ought to - ought not to oughtn't to
The short forms 's and 'd have two different long forms:
he's = he is oder he has
he'd = he would oder he had
We seldom use short forms after names and nouns.
Peter has got a book. = Peter's got a book.
The children have visited London. = The children've visited London.
When have is a full verb, we do not use the short form.
They have breakfast at 6 o'clock.

may - to be allowed to

Modals - Explanation
We substitute "may" with "to be allowed to".

Affirmative sentences


Tense Modal Form
Simple Present I may play football. I am allowed to play football.
I'm allowed to play football.
Simple Past Do not use may in the Simple Past. I was allowed to play football.
will-future Do not use may in the will-future. I will be allowed to play football.
I'll be allowed to play football.
There are also other tenses possible:
e.g. Present Perfect: I have been allowed to play football.

Negations

Tense Modal Form
Simple Present I may not play football. I am not allowed to play football.
I'm not allowed to play football.
Simple Past Do not use may not in the Simple Past. I was not allowed to play football.
I wasn't allowed to play football.
will-future Do not use may not in the will-future. I will not be allowed to play football.
I won't be allowed to play football.

Questions

Tense Modal Form
Simple Present May he play football. Is he allowed to play football?
Simple Past Do not use may in the Simple Past. Was he allowed to play football?
will-future Do not use may in the will-future. Will he be allowed to play football?

 

Modals - English Grammar

1) can

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to) I can speak English.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema?
request Can you wait a moment, please?
offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the cinema.
polite question * Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request * Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility * It could get very hot in Montana.

3) may

Use Examples
possibility It may rain today.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestion May I help you?

4) might

Use Examples
possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today.
hesitant offer * Might I help you?

5) must

Use Examples
force, necessity I must go to the supermarket today.
possibility You must be tired.
advice, recommendation You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

6) must not/may not

Use Examples
prohibition You mustn't work on dad's computer.
You may not work on dad's computer.

7) need not

Use Examples
not necessary I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight.

8) ought to

Use Examples
advice You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9) shall

instead of will in the 1st person
Use Examples
suggestion Shall I carry your bag?

10) should

Use Examples
advice You should drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11) will

Use Examples
wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) Will you please shut the door?
prediction, assumption I think it will rain on Friday.
promise I will stop smoking.
spontaneous decision Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.
habits She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.

12) would

Use Examples
wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.
* no past forms - future forms


must - to have to

Modals - Explanation
We substitute "must" with "to have to".
Be careful: The negation of must means not allowed to.

Affirmative sentences

 

Tense Modal Form
Simple Present I must play football. I have to play football.
Simple Past Do not use must in the Simple Past. I had to play football.
will-future Do not use must in the will-future. I will have to play football.

Negations

Tense   Modal Form
Simple Present 1 I must not play football.
I mustn't play football.
I am not allowed to play football.
I'm not allowed to play football.
2 I need not play football.
I needn't play football.
I do not have to play football.
I don't have to play football.
3 I do not need to play football.
I don't need to play football.
Simple Past 1 Do not use must not in the Simple Past. I was not allowed to play football.
I wasn't allowed to play football.
2 Do not use need not in the Simple Past. I did not have to play football.
I didn't have to play football.
3 I did not need to play football.
I didn't need to play football.
will-future 1 Do not use must not in the will-future. I will not be allowed to play football.
I won't be allowed to play football.
2 Do not use need not in the will-future. I will not have to play football.
I won't have to play football.
3 I will not need to play football.
I won't need to play football.

Questions

Tense   Modal Form
Simple Present 4 Must he play football? Does he have to play football?
5 Does he need to play football?
Simple Past 4 Do not use must in the Simple Past. Did he have to play football?
5 Did he need to play football?
will-future 4 Do not use must in the will-future. Will he have to play football?
5 Will he need to play football?

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